Standards and Guidelines
Geo-referencing with coordinates is essential to build intelligence in geographic information systems (GIS). Standards facilitate the optimal integration of multiple layers of geospatial information at different scales and resolutions. Connecting to the geodetic infrastructure can improve the consistency of datasets for a broad range of projects, from local engineering to national environmental studies. Adherence to standards also ensures the compatibility of products and interoperability of systems, simplifying data exchange and maximizing efficiency. In the geospatial industry, standards support the concept of ‘observe once, use many times’.
Geodetic survey standards have evolved over time to keep pace with improvements in observing technologies and measurement precision. Continuous tracking of navigation satellites and internet communications have also created the requirement to develop additional specifications to support the digital exchange of geodetic information. Over the years CGRSC members have provided various guidelines, standards, and recommendations for geodetic surveys using terrestrial and satellite technologies. This section reviews conventional and GNSS survey standards and guidelines developed and promoted by CGRSC member agencies and various national and international scientific associations.